4th Grade

Historical Thinking and Skills

1. The order of significant events in Ohio and the United States can be shown on a timeline.

2. Primary and secondary sources can be used to create historical narratives.


3. Various groups of people have lived in Ohio over time, including prehistoric and historic American Indians, migrating settlers and immigrants. Interactions among these groups have resulted in both cooperation and conflict.

4. The 13 colonies came together around a common cause of liberty and justice, uniting to fight for independence during the American Revolution and to form a new nation.

5. The Northwest Ordinance established a process for the creation of new states and specified democratic ideals to be incorporated in the states of the Northwest Territory.

6. The inability to resolve standing issues with Great Britain and ongoing conflicts with American Indians led the United States into the War of 1812. Victory in the Battle of Lake Erie contributed to American success in the war.

7. Sectional issues divided the United States after the War of 1812. Ohio played a key role in these issues, particularly with the anti-slavery movement and the Underground Railroad.

8. Many technological innovations that originated in Ohio benefited the United States.

Spatial Thinking and Skills

9. A map scale and cardinal and intermediate directions can be used to describe the relative location of physical and human characteristics of Ohio and the United States.

Places and Regions

10. The economic development of the United States continues to influence and be influenced by agriculture, industry and natural resources in Ohio.

11. The regions of the United States known as the North, South and West developed in the early 1800s largely based on their physical environments and economies.

Human Systems

12. People have modified the environment since prehistoric times. There are both positive and negative consequences for modifying the environment in Ohio and the United States.

13. The population of the United States has changed over time, becoming more diverse (e.g. racial, ethnic, linguistic, religious). Ohio’s population has become increasingly reflective of the cultural diversity in the United States.

14. Ohio’s location and its transportation systems continue to influence the movement of people, products and ideas in the United States.

Civic Participation and Skills

15. Individuals have a variety of opportunities to participate in and influence their state and national government. Citizens have both rights and responsibilities in Ohio and the United States.

16. Civic participation requires individuals to make informed and reasoned decisions by accessing and using information effectively.

17. Effective participants in democratic society engage in compromise.

Rules and Laws

18. Laws can protect rights, provide benefits and assign responsibilities.

19. The U.S. Constitution establishes a system of limited government and protects citizens’ rights; five of these rights are addressed in the First Amendment.

Roles of Systems of Government

20. A constitution is a written plan for government. Democratic constitutions provide the framework for government in Ohio and the United States.

21. The Ohio Constitution and the U.S. Constitution separate the major responsibilities of government among three branches.

Economic Decision Making and Skills

22. Tables and charts help people understand information and issues. Tables organize information in columns and rows. Charts organize information in a variety of visual formats (pictures, diagrams, graphs).

Production and Consumption

23. Entrepreneurs organize productive resources and take risks to make a profit and compete with other producers.

Financial Literacy

24. Saving a portion of income contributes to an individual’s financial well-being. Individuals can reduce spending to save more of their income.

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